Facial Bones

Facial Bones

– [Voiceover] For the facial bones, these bones are all gonna be clumped, or grouped, in the front of the skull. To start with, we’re at
the bridge of the nose. We have our two nasal bones. If you go just to each
lateral side here and here, all the way down, this area’s gonna be our maxillary bones. There are two, little bit
of a suture right here, so you have two maxillae. On the maxillae, we’re
gonna have a few landmarks. We have the alveolar
process, or alveolar margin. That’s this right here,
basically your gums. It’s where the teeth are inserting into, the alveolar process, or alveolar margin. The inferior orbital fissure is gonna be this slit right down here. Just to help with orientation, this part up top was the
superior orbital fissure from the sphenoid bone. This is the inferior orbital
fissure of the maxillae. The infraorbital foramen is
this hole right down here. It’s just the hole, or the
foramen, under the orbits, the infraorbital foramen. Now, if we take this skull,
and we have to flip it over, if we flip it over and look under the jaw, you can see that this right down here is still part of the maxillae. Well, on that portion, we’re gonna have the palatine process. Now, you can see right here how we have this line going across. That’s differentiating, that
means there’s two bones there. The more anterior, towards
the front of the mouth, this and this is gonna
be the palatine process. It’s the front of the roof of the mouth. Most posterior to the mouth, back here, this is actually the palatine bone. And that’s the back of the hard
palette, the palatine bone. Now, the palatine bone
also has a landmark. It’s going to be the horizontal place. So this top surface, this
smooth, roughly smooth surface, is the horizontal plate. The whole piece here is
gonna be the palatine bone. And right at the very front tip, you can kinda see it
that way, way up here, this little indent, this
little opening there, that is going to be your incisive foramen, or it could be called the
incisive fossa sometimes. So the incisive foramen is
right at the most anterior point of the maxillary bone. So we turn it back to its side here, and now we’re looking at
more of a lateral view here and an anterior view there, obviously. We have this bone right here, which is your zygomatic bone. Now, I’ve already mentioned this when I’ve talked about the temporal bone, but let’s just go through it again. The zygomatic bone is
on the lateral aspect of the eye orbits. This little space right
here is the temporal process of the zygomatic bone. Remember, that attaches
to the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. So here is the zygomatic bone
with the temporal process. The lachrymal bone is found right here, just a small little bone
on the medial aspect of the eye orbit. Now, the lachrymal bone should
have a little foramen here. Now, depending on the skull you have, might just be this little indent, or it might actually be a hole. But that indent should be
going all the way through, and that’s called the lachrymal foramen. So this right here is a lachrymal bone, and that should be a hole going through, which is referred to as
the lachrymal foramen. The vomer is gonna be at the very bottom of the nasal septum. This structure down here is the vomer. So you see the vomer is at the
bottom of the nasal septum. And the last bone’s
the mandible down here, but we’re gonna kind of shift gears and use an individual mandible. So here’s the mandible. Now, on the mandible, we have the body. That’s this main chunk
down here, the body. From the body, you can go and see that this little point down
here is going to be the angle. That’s the angle of the mandible. From the body to the
angle, you go upwards. This part back here, the back of the jaw, is referred to as the ramus. At the top of the ramus, we have two protrusions
which form an indent. The indent is called the mandibular notch. The more anterior of the protrusions is the coronoid process. That’s the coronoid process. The more posterior of the two protrusions is called the condylar process, or also known as the mandibular condyle. Since we have teeth, we still
have the alveolar process, or alveolar margin. That’s right below where the
teeth go, that’s your gums. And right down here at the chin, we have this little tiny hole,
which is the mental foramen. There’s that little tiny
hole right there by the chin, the mental foramen. And on the inside of the
jaw, inside this mandible, you can see this little indent back here. This is a foramen. That is the mandibular foramen, so the mandibular foramen is on the inside of the ramus. So go through it one more time to make sure we’re all on the same page. This is the body, the body
has the mental foramen. The body goes to the angle
here, which goes to the ramus, which goes up to this mandibular notch, coronoid process, condylar process for a mandibular condyle. We have the alveolar margin up here, and then we have on the inside, this is the mandibular foramen. So that is your mandible, which, when looking at the whole entire jaw, and the whole entire
structure of the bones, you’re gonna see fits and
articulates right on the side. We have the temporal mandibular joint, so it joins and articulates
to the temporal bone.

About the Author: Earl Hamill


  1. I feel like there were parts missing from this video. For example, a lot more could be explained about the mandible. But thank you very much, this is helpful!

  2. Thank you! I have a 'moving sphenoid" and lot of scar tissue from old injuries, (fractured C2 and multiple concussions and cervical injuries) that create so much pain & swelling. This seems to be the last part to heal. Occiput too. Seeing this so clearly helps me focus on how to adjust it better. Thank you so much!

  3. Thank God for these videos because books do describe it, but it's impossible to imagine all the tiny details without seeing it this way…

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